The Sutras are designed on a basis of Samkhya philosophy. The division in to the Eight Limbs (Sanskrit Ashtanga) of Yoga is similar to Buddhas Noble Eightfold Way; inclusion of Brahmaviharas (Yoga Sutra 1:33) also shows Buddhisms affect on elements of the Sutras.
In the Yoga Sutras, Patanjali prescribes adherence to eight "limbs" or steps (the sum which constitute "Ashtanga Yoga", the title of the second chapter) to quiet ones mind and attain kaivalya. The Yoga Sutras form the theoretical and philosophical basis of Raja Yoga, and so are considered to be the most organized and complete explanation of this discipline.
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali is certainly a publication of 195/6 split phrases that can be simple to memorize. Because it is a work that is every bit as much a part of modern yoga since it was a part of the birth of yoga, this specific reserve is held in high esteem in the yoga universe.
There are countless philosophical concepts, which were pondered over by various schools of idea around 600 B.C. to 400 A.D. in eastern region of the world. The school of Samkhya is one of those philosophical systems.
Samkhya, marks the shifting of idea from Vedic ‘monism’ to the idea of dualism as the primary cause of the universe.
In Samkhya philosophy it distinguishing between Self (Spirit/Awareness Purusha) and Matter/Character (Prakrti) is certainly of central importance to Samkhya Philosophy. Samkhya Philosophy elaborates a fundamental dualism between such conscious Selves and all the phenomena that is presented to such Selves by Matter/Nature. Such phenomena of Matter/Nature comes with reflections of the intellect, the faculty which makes issues personal (the I-Maker/Ahamkara), the instinctual brain (manas), the capacities to perceive sense data, the capacities to do something, the guidelines of the components of feeling perception, and the gross factors. These arise when Prakriti is usually in the existence of a Purusha, plus they become enmeshed and entangled when there is normally mis-identification between Prakriti and Purusha. False confusion between the Self and what is not the Self is definitely the fundamental ignorance that perpetuates bondage in this world. Liberation is certainly sought by becoming alert to such distinctions on an extremely deep level of personal knowledge, to ensure that one may eventually use the great faculty of your brain — intellectual reflection (Buddhi/Mahat) — without mistakenly determining it with the Purusha, and the consequences of such entanglement will unravel and one won’t get bound by incarnations or confused by Prakriti
In Samkhya philosophy a guna can be one of Prakriti’s three "tendencies": tamas, sattva, and rajas. Guna is the tendency of the mind and not the state. For example, sattva guna is normally that force which will bring your brain to purity but isn’t purity itself. Likewise rajas guna is definitely that force which will bring the mind to execute some action but isn’t action itself.
Sattva (originally "being, presence, entity") offers been translated to signify balance, purchase, or purity. This commonly implies that a person with more of Sattva has a positive and even orderly state of mind. Such a person is psychologically kind, relaxed, alert and thoughtful.
Rajas leads someone to activity. This type of activity is discussed by the word Yogakshem. Yogakshem is composed of two words and phrases: Yoga and Kshem. Yoga in the present context is acquiring a thing that one does not have. Kshem means losing something that one previously has. Rajas may be the force that creates wishes for acquiring new issues and fears for dropping something that one has. These desires and fears lead someone to activity.
Tamas features been translated to indicate "too inactive", negative, lethargic, dull, or slow. It’s the quality of inertia which gives coherence for everything. Mentally, it is connected with darkness, delusion, or ignorance. A tamas quality also can imply that a person has a self-destructive or entropic mind-set. That person is constantly pursuing destructive activities.
Vedanta maintains that Brahman may be the only Immaterial Sentient Living; and being non-materials and simple, It has to be all pervading and the only One Reality.
Before everything there is Reality as Absolute Consciousness. The ‘Will’ to become many is the starting of manifest universe. The Might evolves as Illusion: the Maya. ‘Absolute Consciousness, Brahman, willed to be many’, that is Maya. Maya may be the cosmic illusion that makes ignorance and veils the perspective of the Only Certainty. Due to the vitality of Maya, the Same Oneness is definitely perceived as manifold universe. Absolute Consciousness was never modified, is not modified, and can not be modified. Here is the basis of Advaita Vedanta. Predicated on their experiences the ‘seers’ or ‘rishis’ of ancient ages came to the conclusion that the entire manifest universe may be the illusory expression of One Substance -the Absolute General Consciousness. Samkhya with it’s dual philosophy is certainly said to be the foundation of The Yogasutras and Purusa and Prakriti certainly are a fundamental the main text.
The origin of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali may be the theme of some debate among both historians and practitioners. For example, there are some people who credit the writing of this set of sutras to a grammarian known as Patanjali. Later, though, a timeline was created that showed that to become unlikely. Within the yoga community, though, many declare that Patanjali was actually simply a compiler and that before the work was created, the Sutras were basically memorized and passed on between teacher and scholar. Timelines do, though, recommend this text was constructed in about the second century B.C.
An objective study may suggest that Patanjali resided within even a more tight selection of 200 BC to 200 AD (or around the time of Jesus), than some typically common suppositions (as though he were the next century BCE grammarian by the same name) or even the next or third centuries CE based on the dates of the first of all extant commentary (by Vyasa).
Atha = right now, Yoga = Of Yoga, Anusasanam = exposition or instruction.
Now the exposition of Yoga has been made.
(Patanjali Ch-1, Vs-1)
"The name of this text is known as using Sanskrit words and phrases: yoga, is usually a mindset wherein you are able to gain mastery of feelings and thoughts as well. Sutra actually means "thread." This thread is actually the connection between your sutras in the task. These Sutras are just combinations of thoughts threaded together – sometimes not well formed sentences with subjects, predicates and so forth. Within the space of these 196 short Sutras, the entire research of Yoga is obviously delineated: its aim, the necessary practices, the obstacles you can meet along the path, their removal, and precise descriptions of the results which will be obtained from such practices." (Sri Swami Satchidananda – The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali – Ch-1, Pg-1).
(b) Provide a brief overview of the four chapters
The sutras in the text are divided into four books (chapters). Fifty one of the sutras are contained in the e book called Samadhi Pada, fifty five of them happen to be in Sadhana Pada, fifty six happen to be likewise in Vibhuti Pada, and thirty four of the sutras are available in Kaivalya Pada.
Yoga Sutras Chapter 1 – Concentration Samadhi Pada
The publication Samadhi Pada contains sutras that are most considered fundamental to yoga. It emphasizes that yoga is approximately discipline and that it’s the ability to master your feelings and thoughts. Many of the most famous yoga sutras come from this particular book
Concentration: Chapter 1 of the Yoga Sutras is entitled Samadhi Pada, which means the chapter on focus. Chapter 1 describes yoga, witnessing five kinds of thoughts, uncoloring thoughts, the twin concepts of practice and non-attachment, the stages of concentration, efforts and commitments, obstacles and alternatives, and means and outcomes of stabilizing the mind.
Yoga Sutras Chapter 2 – Practice Sadhana Pada
In the Sadhana Pada, there is much about practice because the Sanskrit word "sadhana" actually does suggest practice. This chapter is definitely where Kriya Yoga and the eight limbs of yoga earliest appear. These elements reflect the theory that yoga is usually both selfless and spiritual.
Practices: Chapter 2 of the Yoga Sutras is normally entitled Sadhana Pada, which means the chapter on procedures. Chapter 2 outlines certain tools of interest that are used to systematically carve out, or cut away the obstacles of the interior mental shield that’s blocking the light of the Self within. This includes the first of all 5 of the 8 rungs of yoga, known as ashtanga yoga.
Yoga in the sort of action (kriya yoga) has three parts:
1) Teaching and purifying the senses (tapas),
2) Self-analysis in the context of teachings (svadhyaya),
3) Devotion and allowing go into the creative source that we emerged (iswara pranidhana).
(tapah svadhyaya ishvara-pranidhana kriya-yogah)
Tapah = practically ‘heat’ accepting the purifying aspects of painful experience, purifying action, training the senses
Svadhyaya = lit ‘one’s personal’ or self-research in the context of teachings, remembrance of sacred term or mantra
Iswara = innovative source, causal field, supreme Guru or instructor. Omniscient
But not Omnipotent
pranidhana = practicing the presence, dedication, devotion, surrender of fruits of practice, or contemplation.
Kriya-yogah = yoga of practice, action, mental purification
Kriya Yoga: When considering life and spiritual methods, it is easy after that to remind yourself of this foundation by internally expressing such text as, "I have to coach my senses, explore within, and forget about these attachments and aversions." Within a
simple sentence like this may be the outline of Kriya Yoga (that easy sentence includes tapas, svadhyaya, and ishvara pranidhana).
Iswara pranidhana: The emphasis of iswara pranidhana practice may be the release or surrender that is carried out in a sincere, committed, or devotional attitude. It really is easy to get caught up in debates over the type of God, Guru, creative source, and teacher. Yoga is very broad and non-sectarian, leaving it available to each individual how exactly to perceive these realities. The even more important part is that of letting go rather than securing to the images and desires of the senses (tapas) and the personal characteristics and makeup uncovered through introspection (svadhyaya).
Iswara: In the Upanishads, the word ÄªÅ›wara is employed to denote a state of collective consciousness. Hence, The Lord is not a becoming that sits on a higher pedestal beyond the sun, moon, and celebrities; Iswara is actually the state of Best Reality. But due to the lack of direct experience, The God has been personified and offered various names and varieties by religions throughout the age range. When one expands one’s individual consciousness to the Universal Consciousness, it really is called Self-realization, for the average person self has noticed the unity of diversity, the very underlying principle, or Common Self, beneath all forms and names. Here is the fundamental difference between monism and dualism, one is essentially theistic and the additional is not.
Yoga Sutras Chapter 3 – Progressing Vibhuti Pada
The Vibhuti Pada can be translated "power." The roles of the sutras in this particular book are to describe and help the yogi to achieve full consciousness through yoga. It is essentially about attaining higher levels of knowing of one’s self.
Progressing: Chapter 3 of the Yoga Sutras is usually entitled Vibhuti Pada, this means the chapter on progressing. Chapter 3 starts off by presenting the last 3 of the 8 rungs of yoga, which are focus, meditation, and samadhi, collectively referred to as samyama. All of those other chapter clarifies how samyama is employed as the finer device to eliminate the subtler veils of ignorance.
The last three rungs of Yoga: Dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi will be the final three rungs of Yoga.
Dharana: Concentration may be the procedure for holding or fixing the attention of mind onto one object or place.
Dhyana: Meditation is sustained concentration, whereby the interest continues to hold or replicate the same object or place.
Samadhi: Samadhi is the deep absorption, wherein just the essence of that object, place, or level shines forth in the mind, as if the mind were devoid actually of its own form.
Stages of attention: It is attention itself, which is definitely progressively moving inward through these few levels:
Attention brings about concentration (dharana).
Concentration contributes to meditation (dhyana).
Meditation contributes to absorption (samadhi).
Yoga Sutras Chapter 4 – Liberation Kaivalya Pada
Meaning of Kaivalya: The 4th chapter of the Yoga Sutras can be entitled "Kaivalya Pada." The word "Kaivalya" literally means "isolation." It is often taken to signify liberation or enlightenment. However, the way in which "isolation" is certainly a quite effective term is that pure consciousness or purusha is now standing alone, separate from all the manifestations of prakriti, incorporating literally all the manifestations or swirlings of most levels of the mind field. In Sutra 1.16 supreme non-attachment is pointed out as a stage beyond the countless other degrees of attachment. Sutra 4.32 clarifies how the primary elements called gunas have done their purpose and recede in ideal equilibrium into that that they arose. These are aspects or byproducts of the process of the isolation (kaivalya) of pure consciousness (purusha). Purusa generally is liberated from its attachment to Prakriti.
The purpose of the whole of creation is to give us a context for understanding what we are and what we aren’t. When we recognize that, then there is definitely kaivalya, and prakrti has fulfilled its purpose. A person who experiences kaivalya sees prakrti, the material world, simply as it is, with no meaning beyond that.
Kaivalya describes the effect on the personality of being in a continuing state of samadhi. This is the state of inner flexibility that yoga strives for. A person in the status of kaivalya knows the world so very well that he stands apart from it in the impression that he is not influenced by it, although he might well be in a position to influence the universe. Persons in kaivalya behave like ordinary people, but they do not carry the responsibility of the world on the shoulders. They stay in the world, nonetheless they are not at the mercy of it. They aren’t clear of sensual perception or free from the body, they contain a "foot" in both "worlds". Wherever they are actually, they are sure of themselves. That’s kaivalya. External forces haven’t any ability over a person such as this, though he is aware of the external world very well.
(c) Choose two of the following topics:
Yogic idea of the mind
Significance of Iswara
The Yogic idea of the mind
YOGAS CITTA VRTTI NIRODHAH
Yogas = Yoga, Chitta = of the mind stuff, Vritti = alterations, Nirodhah = restraint.
The restraint of the adjustments of your brain stuff is Yoga
(Patanjali Ch-1, Vs-2)
In this Sutra Patanjali gives the aim of Yoga. For a keen student that one Sutra would be enough for the reason that rest of them only explain this one. If the restraint of the mental modifications is achieved you have reached the purpose of Yoga. The entire science of Yoga is based on this. Patanjali has offered this is of Yoga and at the same time the practice. "If you can control the growing of the mind into ripples, you will experience Yoga" (Sri Swami Satchidananda – The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali – Ch-1, Pg-3,4).
"Normally, the term Yoga can be translated as "union", but for a union there must be two things to unite. In this instance, what’s to unite with what? So here we take Yoga to signify the Yogic encounter. The extraordinary experience gained by controlling the modifications of the mind itself is named Yoga" (Sri Swami Satchidananda – The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali – Ch-1, Pg-4).
There is a Sanskrit expressing; "Mana eva manushyanam karanam bandha mokshayoho." "As the mind, so the person; bondage; or liberation are in your mind." In the event that you feel bound, you will be bound. In the event that you feel liberated you will be liberated. Stuff outside neither bind nor liberate you; only your frame of mind toward them will effective guidelines on how to write a history research paper that.
These vrittis, or mental actions/modifications, are said to be either painful, or certainly not agonizing. They are five-fold :-
PRAMANA VIPARYAYA VIKALPA NIDRA SMRTAYAH
Pramana = right know-how; Viparyaya = misconception, Vikalpa = verbal delusions, Nidra = rest, Smritayah = memory
The are right understanding, misconception, verbal delusion, sleeping and memory
(Patanjali Ch-I, Vs-6 )
Patanjali explains that right-knowledge can be had by immediate perception, inference, or testimony. Put simply, one can sail the ocean in person and bring back direct knowledge, or you can notice of the travels undertaken by another sailor explorer, or you can read the book written by the sailor on his go back. Even right-knowledge is even so limited as the original sailor still cannot understand everything there is to know about the ocean he’s exploring.
Wrong-expertise is normally likened to the delusion we encounter whenever we see something and imagine it to be something else, like a snake in the dark which proves to come to be only a rope when seen in daylight.
Imagination is usually perception which is certainly coloured by fanciful thoughts or dreams. The dreaming period of sleep referred to as the REM phase is littered with random thought patterns, but even the deep-sleep stage, which leaves no mindful trace in your brain, is actually a stage of thought. The sleeper knows little or nothing, but knows that he understood little or nothing on waking. All extraneous idea can be temporarily suspended and only the idea of emptiness remains to keep the feeling on waking.
Memory is the process of remembering past knowledge. Each memory is first of all processed to create it palatable, and then filed for potential reference, leaving an impression in your brain. These impressions can sometimes remain on the surface of the mind and be recalled at will, or sink to underneath where they consider root.
Patanjali describes the restless head as outgoing (paranga cetana) and the tranquil inward-turned head as (pratyak cetana) I.29. When your brain focuses on external influences the Personal appears to assume the forms and photos projected by the mind. When the vritti actions are quietened through sensory withdrawal, concentration, and meditation, gentleman is thought to rest in his accurate nature.
Patanjali provides us two tools which can only help us control the mind – abhyasa or standard, sustained practice, and vairagya, an activity of detachment from things of desire, which is normally attained as the result of abhyasa. Patanjali likens both states of mind to a mirror. When the mirror is definitely dusty or smeared, it displays a distorted image of whatever it reflects. When the mirror is normally cleaned the image is normally reflected without distortion, shining in its essence – samadhi. Patanjali concludes by saying that achievements in Yoga depends upon the effectiveness of our desire for enlightenment, and the amount of effort we are ready to put into our practice.
KAYEDRIYA SIDDHIR ASUDDHI KSAYAT TAPASAH
Kaya = human body, Indriya = senses, Siddhi = occult powers, Asuddhi = impurities, kshayat = because of destruction, Tapasah =
By austerity, impurities of the body and senses are destroyed and occult powers gained.
(Patanjali Ch-2, Vs-43)
Siddhi is a Sanskrit term that actually means "accomplishment", "attainment", or "success". Additionally it is used as a term for spiritual ability (or psychic ability). The word is used in that impression in Hinduism and Tantric Buddhism. These spiritual powers supposedly change from relatively simple types of clairvoyance to being able to levitate, to be present at various places simultaneously, to become no more than an atom, to materialize things, to have access to memories from previous lives, and more.
There are many perspectives of attaining Siddhis. One school of thought states they are a normal set of occurrences which should not be focused after because they’ll pull one from the path. Other perspectives hold that each siddhi ought to be pursued because it allows one to understand the energy of the Godhead. Siddhis may occur in lots of ways: naturally although agency of karma, consequently of prolonged practice (sadhana), through rigorous austerities (tapasya) or by grace. They are often mentioned together with Riddhi (pl Riddhis), which means material or worldly prosperity, power, high-class lifestyles, etc.
TRAYAM EKATRA SAMYAMAH
Trayam = the three; Ekatra = after one object; samyama = the practice of dharana, dhyana and samadhi.
The practice of these three (dharana, dhyana and samadhi)upon a single object is named samyama.
(Patanjali Ch-3, Vs-4)
From the practice of samyama, arrive the siddhis. You dive deeply into an object or idea, and it releases its secrets. In a way, scientists have done samyama on the atomic particles. The contaminants released their strength, and the researchers got the knowledge of these. They accomplished the reality behind the contaminants. Samyama is normally done on items or ideas connected with results. When the benefits come, you phone them siddhis or vibhuti. (Patanjali Ch-3, Pg-177).
TAD VAIRAGYAD API DOSA BIJA KSAYE KAIVALYAM
Tad = that; Vairagyat = by non attachment; Api = also; Dosha bija = seed of bondage; Kshaye = destroyed; Kaivalyam = independence.
By non attachment possibly to that (each one of these siddhis), the seed of bondage is destroyed and so follows Kaivalya (Independence)
(Patanjali Ch-3, Vs-51)
"This means that those siddhis are beautiful, however they will bind us, because siddhis will be the outcome of the mind. Your brain wants something. It really wants to achieve this or that. What for? To be pleased with itself, It develops ego, It makes your "I" and "mine" bigger, Selfish desires are still there."
"So can be the siddhis terrible? If why are they right now there? I say they aren’t bad. They are beautiful; they are great. When? They come for you. When you follow them they are awful. That’s all the difference. Let the siddhis arrive and beg." Don’t turn into a slave or mounted on siddhis let them come to you and be used as tools (Sri Swami Satchidananda – The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali – Ch-3, Pg-199,200).
Nine main Siddhis
Parkaya Pravesha: Parkaya Pravesh means one’s soul entering into the body of some other person. Through this knowledge a good dead body can be taken to life.
Haadi Vidya: This Vidya or understanding has been mentioned in several ancient texts. On acquiring this Vidya, a person feels neither food cravings nor thirst, and will remain without consuming food or drinking water for many days at a time.
Kaadi Vidya: Being an does not feel starving or thirsty in Haadi Vidya, likewise in Kaadi Vidya a person is not afflicted by change of months, i.e. by summer time, winter, rain, etc. After accomplishing this Vidya, a person shall not really feel cold even if he sits in the snow-laden mountains, and shall certainly not feel hot regardless if he sits in the fire.
Vayu Gaman Siddhi: Through this Siddhi a person can become capable of flying in the skies and journeying from one spot to another in only a few seconds.
Madalasa Vidya: On accomplishing this Vidya, a person turns into capable of increasing or decreasing the size of his human body according to his desire. Lord Hanuman acquired miniaturized his body system through this Vidya while getting into the city of Lanka.
Kanakdhara Siddhi: One can acquire immense and unlimited wealth through this Siddhi.
Prakya Sadhana: Through this Sadhana a Yogi can direct his disciple to consider birth from the womb of a female who is childless or cannot bear kids.
Surya Vigyan: This solar technology is one of the most significant sciences of ancient India. This research has been known and then the Indian Yogis; using it, one substance can be changed into another through the moderate of light.
Mrit Sanjeevani Vidya: This Vidya was made by Guru Shukracharya. Through it, even a dead person could be brought back to life.
I recognise many of these Siddhis from the Shaman rituals that will be carried out, including the native americans utilized rituals/dances and trances to empthise and undertake the characteristics and vitality of wolves and eagles, putting on feathers and or wolf hide etc. to greatly help invoke the powers.
(d) List the yamas and niyamas and present a short translation of their names. Do you feel they are rules to be viewed? Or are they the consequence of sustained practice of yoga?
There are many interpretations of and opinions about the yamas and niyamas. While the ancient Indian text message, the Bhagavata Purana assigns 12 yogic restraints the Parashar Smriti, another text message, puts forward ten. But the yamas as explained in Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras there are only five, which are generally known as the great common vows or the sarvabhauma maha vratas, because they are not limited by either class, creed, period or circumstances. They are the guidelines for how we interact with the outer community, the social disciplines to steer us in our romantic relationships with others. These five are:
â€¢ Ahimsa (non-violence),
â€¢ Satya (truthfulness),
â€¢ Asteya (non-stealing),
â€¢ Brahmacharya (celibacy) and
â€¢ Aparigraha (non-covetousness)
The niyamas will be the second constituents of Ashtanga Yoga. How we connect to ourselves, our internal community. The niyamas are about self-regulation-helping us preserve a positive environment in which to develop. Their practice harnesses the energy made from the cultivation of the sooner yamas. According to sage Yajnavalkya, there happen to be ten niyamas and the Bhagavad Gita lists 11 constituents. But Patanjali names simply five:
â€¢ Shaucha or purity,
â€¢ Santosha or contentment,
â€¢ Tapa or austerity,
â€¢ Swadhyaya or self-education and
â€¢ Ishwar-Pranidhan or meditation on the Divine
The Benefits of Practicing Yamas and Niyamas:
The yamas and niyamas help in managing our energy within an integrative approach, complementing our outer life to our inner advancement. They help us watch ourselves with compassion and consciousness. They assist in respecting the values of the existence, in balancing our interior growth with outer restraint. In a nutshell they support us to lead a conscious-life.
Yamas and niyamas are not about right and incorrect. They are about being honest with the true Self. Living relating to these rules are about living our lives in a better way, about moving towards a knowledge, about making it likely to ‘connect’ with the Divine.
(e) Define the conditions dharana, dhyana and samadhi. Briefly summarise the distinctions between them.
The previous three rungs of Yoga: Dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi will be the final three rungs of Yoga.
Dharana: Concentration is the process of holding or repairing the attention of head onto one object or place.
DESABANDHAS CITTASYA DHARANA
Desabandhah = binding to one place; chittasya = of the mind ; dharana = concentration.
Dharana is the binding of your brain to one place, object or idea.
(Patanjali Ch-3, Vs-1).
Dhyana: Meditation is definitely sustained concentration, whereby the attention continues to carry or repeat the same object or place.
TATRA PRATYAYAIKATANATA DHYANAM
Tatra = therein; Pratyaya = move of cognition; Ekatanata = continued; Dhyanam = meditation.
Dhyana is the continuous stream of cognition toward that object.
(Patanjali Ch-3, Vs-2).
Samadhi: Samadhi is the deep absorption, wherein only the essence of this object, place, or stage shines forth in your brain, as if the mind were devoid also of its form.
TAD EVARTHMATRA NIRBHASAM SVARUPA SUNYAM IVA SAMADHIH
Tad eva = that (meditation) itself; Arthamatra = the object only; Nirbhasam = shining; Svarupa = of its form; Sunyam = without; Iva = as if samadhih = contemplation.
Samadhih is the same meditation when there is the shinig of the object alone, as if without form.
(Patanjali Ch-3, Vs-3).
The dissimilarities between Dharana, Meditation and Samadhi happen to be subtle but profound, in my own view they are even more complimentary than different, they are just like a two dimensional jigsaw, when became a member of up becomes three-dimensional.
In Dharana you will be training the mind. It’s the beginning of meditation. Focus is the start of meditation. Normally, we see our brain running here and there. When we try to fix it on one matter, within a fraction of another we see it somewhere else, keeping it fixed using one thing is concentration.
Meditation is the culmination of concentration, constant flow; it really is like pouring oil from one pot into another. The mind is fixed; interaction between meditator and object is steady.
Time and space does not have any meaning testmyprep.com in meditation; when you feel five minutes as one hour, you aren’t meditating; you are still concentrating, whereas when an hour feels like 5 minutes that’s meditation.
Meditation culminates in the talk about of Samadhih. One can’t consciously practice Samadhih. In Samadhih there is usually neither the thing nor the meditator. There is absolutely no sense of "I am meditating on that".